Archive for January, 1967

Saab Automotive Safety

Posted on 01. Jan, 1967 by .

0

new haven press release header 600 Saab Automotive Safety

Saab Automotive Safety

SAAB (short for Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget, or Swedish Aircraft Company) began its highly successful corporate life building fighter planes under license from other manufacturers in 1936. Later, they concentrated on the lirst all-Swedish designed fighter plane, the SAAB 17. (Today, SAAB is supplying the Royal Swedish Air Force with jet aircraft.) When the military aircraft boom leveled oJ in the late Forties, SAAB turned to other products. An automotive subsidiary was formed, and SAAB’s aircraft engineering and manufacturing experience was incorporated into the SAAB 92. This automobile was specifically designed to withstand the vagaries of Sweden’s rugged climate and topography. The aerodynamic little coupe was the first model in a series of hardy if unspectacular front-wheel-drive, two-stroke, economy automobiles. Through the years, subtle improvements have been made to that basic SAAB, but the package remains essentially the same-a durable, almost indestructible machine.

The SAAB safety story is an impressive one: like many other European manufacturers, SAAB started with safety and went on from there. SAAB is doing something right, as proved by their lon.g string of victories on the punishing-and very dangerous-European rally circuit, where rolling a car is just one method of getting it out of a ditch or around a corner. The more conventional aspects of SAAB’s safety story are presented below.-Ed.

Automotive safety is the current concern of the government, the American public, the press, and automobile manufacturers. And it should be! There were 50,000 traffic fatalities last year in the United States and over four million people suffered injuries.

SAAB shares this concern for automotive safety but it is not something new with us. The first SAAB was designed on the drawing boards of Europe’s leading aircraft manufacturing company and the safety sought in airplane design was incorporated in the first SAAB automobile. We have never deviated from this safety concept.

Since we have what we believe to be the safest small car in the world, we have virtually been able to take the role of an observer in the current safety controversy. Upon analysis, it is evident that some of the criticism leveled at certain automobile manufacturers has been valid- but we hasten to add that most of the criticirn is missing the mark.

Our objective has always been to make as safe an automobile as possible, and concentration on this paramount concern has made us increasingly aware of the total driving environment-road, driver and car. The proper development of each segment of the total driving environment provides the essence of automotive safety-just as the absence of concern for improving one segment sets the stage for hazardous driving conditions.

Now that intensive interest in all phases of safety has been aroused, we can be assured of more prgress toward that goal. Our highway program, as an example, is certainly making safety a primary goal. In communities, heavy-traffic streets are becoming one-way thoroughfares for faster and safer traffic flow. Regulation and limitation of size and type of vehicles spreads traffic more evenly over a community’s streets and by-passes heavy- traffic areas. And the addition of traffic lights, stop signs, and other warning devices where needed contribute to safer driving.

On the open road, the development of freeways, parkways,and turnpikes has made cross-country traveling quicker and safer than ever before. Continuing road studies showing how engineering can “build safety” into highways are reflected in new highway construction and are prompting changes in older roads. More and more, the principle of separation of traffic forms the basis of design in building new roads.

The study of driver habits and driving hazards is getting more attention than ever, and the results show that this area promises greatest improvement in the safety picture. According to a survey made by Liberty Mutual, a Boston-based insurance firm, about 95 per cent of automobile accidents are made by so-called driver error; in other words, the driver makes a wror,g decision, mostly because he has not been,trained to make the right one.

Experience is the best drivertraining teacher, but instruction, training, and continual checking and examination are other means of reaching this end. The insurance company study has shown that individual characteristics tend to show what kind of accidents a driver is apt to incur, and developing reac- tions to such possibilities will tend to avoid them. Working on this princi- ple with fleet drivers, the insurance company has reduced accidents by some 50 per cent.

This type of training-and the driver courses given in our schools -will lessen automobile accidents. Harder driving tests for those applying for licenses will help, and retesting drivers at regular intervals will serve to keep their driving skills up to par. Phycical check-ups for older drivers are also important, and are becoming more and more a part of our safety thinking.

So we can look to a more careful program of driver selection, driver training, and constant driver testing to reduce accidents by a substantial percentage.

The SAAB is a sturdy, safety-designed car. Proof of its sturdiness can be obtained from any SAAB owner and some evidence of its safety design features can be found in the following examples.

Thirty SAABs, being transported to this country from Sweden, were stored in the hold of a ship which encountered a major storm in the Atlantic, with winds in excess of gale force whipping waves to fortyand fifty-foot heights. As the waves thundered against the ship, the lashings securing the thirty automobiles were snapped and, to coin a phrase, all SAABs broke loose. To quote the captain of the vessel, “The cars bounced around the hold like ping pong balls in a cage.”

When the cars were finally unloaded from the ship in New Haven, Conn., there was a curious reaction among many of those at the SAAB headquarters in the United States. We were sad at having lost 30 fine automobiles, but the sadness was tinged with pride-because not one of the 30 cars had its passenger compartment crushed. After being tossed around for hours, one car on top of another, not one SAAB had its roof penetrated or its doors buckled.

Another instance of SAAB durability occurred during a competition endurance race in Canada. A SAAB traveling at about 75 miles per hour encountered another car which had slowed suddenly. Seeking to avoid a collision, the SAAB swerved from its course and as a result turned two end-to-end somersaults and ended its forward momentum with five barrel rolls. The driver then unfas- tened his harness and crawled out of the car, which was lying on its side, through the windshield. (The windshield had popped out on the first som’ersault as it had been designed to do.) Although this crash involved speeds and stresses of far greater proportions than would normally be encountered in a “routine” highway accident, the main structure of the car had suffered no basic deformation and after five rolls the roof had not collapsed.

Finally, to prove the mettle of the car, SAAB staged a special ski event in Sweden in which a SAAB sedan was driven down a ski slope in a roll-over test. After a series of rolls the car righted itself and was driven away from the bottom of the slope.

When the car was first designed in 1949, the aircraft engineers’ objective was a five-passenger automobile which would combine high economy and dependable performance with maintenance-free operation and every known facet of safety. We believe one of the major contributions to performance and safety to be front wheel drive. Since the first SAAB, there have been three design changes-the latest in 1965-but the basic principles nave never been abandoned for the sake of styling.

There have, however, been many improvements in the SAAB which were actual “improvements” rather than mere model changes. For example, the SAAB 96, which was introduced in 1960, has had more than 1500 improvements. Some of the major safety improvements since 1960 are:

Three-point shoulder harness

Dual diagonal brake system

Self-adjusting front brakes

Tamper-proof lock

Improved forward vision

Dual rear-view mirrors

Four-way emergency flasher

Upon reviewing this list, it is interesting to note that in 1964 SAAB had a dual diagonal braking system. A dual braking system is specified by the General Services Administration as one of the requirements for any cars this government agency purchases in 1967. Generally, dual braking systems control two front wheels and two back wheels separately. SAAB’s dual diagonal system controls the left front and right rear; right front and left rear, for greatly improved control.

This same braking system was recently singled out by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration ) in its report to Congress. The space agency rated this braking system “vastly superior” on wet pavement to many U. S. cars’.

The braking tests were conducted by Langley Research Center investigators as part of their study of aquaplaning (the problem of “water ski” effects which can cause aircraft -and cars-to lose all braking and directional control on wet or slushcovered surfaces).

A NASA representative testified that in cars where dual master brake cylinders are used, the “almost universal practice” is to connect the front wheels to one master cylinder and the rear wheels to the other. He added: “A failure of one system gives front wheel braking or rear wheel braking, both of which can result in an uncontrolled skid if wheels are locked on wet pavements.”

The Langley investigators noticed that one foreign car (SAAB) had dual master brake cylinders with each serving one front wheel and the diagonal rear wheel. According to the NASA authorities, “the Langley test car with the diagonal hookup was vastly supelior to the other connections for locked wheel conditions on wet pavements.”

The advantages of front wheel drive in the modern automobile are quite apparent, and the design of the future will consider this essential.

although there are many technical and engineering advantages, the one the average driver is going to notice first is the smooth floor that the car presents. Since the driveshaft does not have to go from the engine to the rear wheels, there is no “hump” or other obstruction on the floor of the passenger compartment.

Another advantage is the “understeer” quality which front wheel drive furnishes. Sports cars are always seeking this quality, because it contributes to easy handling and directional stability. Traction is often more critical at low speed than at high speed, and front wheel drive gives that additional traction. If the front wheels start to slide, control is regained by a slight easing of the throttle, not by a frantic rotation of the steering wheel.

Braking response of front wheel drive is another important advantage. The margin of safety as opposed to rear wheel drive is greater, and even during excessive braking, the car will travel a straight line permitting the driver to brake as hard and as often as he wishes under any circumstances.

The SAAB body is an enclosure on wheels in which every panel, every member combines to create a structure of immense strength. Every inch of the design has been tested with the strain gauges SAAB has developed for testing jet fighters.

The SAAB body is built up from a relatively small number of pressed parts of sheet metal linked by overlapping joints which are spot welded. The body, which serves simultaneously as the framework, is virtually a closed shell which combines the tasks of supporting the passengers, and protecting them, and at the same time providing the necessary stiffening and load supporting connection between the four wheels.

SAAB’s dual-diagonal braking system.

The shell is considered as a continuous unit from the back up to the rear edge of the doors. This part of the body resembles an egg shell from which a large part of one end has been removed. This shell shape is prevented from deforming by the insertion of a bulkhead a short distance inside the shell, to produce a considerable stiffening effect. This bulkhead consists of the sloping wall, which serves simultaneously as the back support of the rear seats.

The roof is rigidly fixed at the top, the floor at the bottom, and the outer panelling of the body at the sides. The sides of the floor are strengthened with straight closed steel sections. Thus the roof and flooring extend towards the front forming two strong beams which are fixed at the back of the shell. The firewall is located between the front end of these beams, where the frame for the windshield is mounted.

Each of the windshield side posts contains a special tubular steel section which extends forward and downward and is fixed in the firewall to absorb the vertical and transverse forces set up. In effect, this is roll bar construction.

The firewall has extra strong lateral side members to allow it to take vertical loads-the firewall itself forming a channel girder across the entire car over two feet in height. The wheel h ousings which are located near this strong channel girder form the side walls of the engine compartment and constitute a supporting member for the front of the car. The flooring itself connects the wheel housings.

Dimensions and layout have been chosen so that all pars cooperate in taking the maximum permissible stress at maximum loads. Loading tests carried out with strain gauges under realistic conditions have verified this.

In a compact car capable of such high speeds as the SAAB, suspension is of paramount importance, contributing as it does to general stability and roadholding qualities.

Front wheel suspension is accomplished by the stub axle carried in a single angular contact ball bearing. The rubber bearings are of the type in which angular movements take place without any sliding motion whatever. All the relative movement is absorbed elastically in the rubber, with the roll center somewhat above ground level. The coil spring is on top of the upper suspension arm. A stabilizer (anti-roll bar) connects the two lower suspen- sion arms, with the outer ends of these arms connected to the steering knuckle housing by means of ball and socket joints.

The U-section rigid axle of the rear suspension system is joined to the body by a resilient bearing in the car’s plane of symmetry and by two longitudinal links at the sides. The central bearing is designed to take up lateral forces and, together with the springx, the braking torque. The side links keep the rear axle at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the car and carry over the braking forces transmitted from the rear wheels.

Shock absorber movement is approximately half that of the wheels when the spring system functions without roll. When roll does occur, however, movement of the shock absorbers-which are attached to the rear axle-is considerably greater, approximately 80% of wheel movement.

The rear axle design eliminates rear-end lift under braking because brake torque produces a spring compression which compensates for this. It also eliminates sway in S-bends, as the shock absorbers react sufflciently to damp roll and thus stabilize the car.

With two people in the car the weight distribution is approximately 58% on the front wheels and 42% on the rear wheels. This weight distribution ensures good drivingwheel adhesion, keeping the load on the front wheels greater than that on the rear wheels, as long as the up gradient does not exceed 25O.

Development work on the SAAB in 1949 included extensive preliminary tests to eliminate any weak points in the construction and to study stress characteristics, phenomena and elasticity. The accumulated experience of these tests was utilized to determine loads and working conditions very accurately. Tests on parts included torsional fatigue tests on the stabilizer and on coil springs, and dynamic load tests on the front spring arms. As soon as a number of test cars were ready, some of them were put through alternating road and special track tests .

Continuing SAAB tests included thousands of circuits at full speed in both directions round a small circular track with an uneven surface, consisting of radially arranged planks. Runs were also made over a special track about 100 yards long, where 4-in. high blocks arranged in zig-zag subjected the wheel suspension, spring system, shock absorbers, steering gear and body to loads which would normally occur only if the car ran off the road, or drove over deep potholes. No part was approved unless it could stand up to 1000 runs over the “steps” and 200 jumps from the “jumping board.”

In summary, the SAAB does not make safety an option or even a “delete option.” Every safety item in a SAAB is in every SAAB and there is no extra or hidden charge.

Among these “standard” safety features are:

1. Dual diagonal brake system- two independent hydraulic systems, mounted diagonally. Should one brake line fail there will still be adequate braking power for two wheels, one front and one rear, on opposite sides of the car.

2. Extra strong windshield pillars, which function as a “roll bar” for maximum roof support.

3. Cross box member body construction for extra strength.

4. Reserve reinforcements under the hood-corrugated metal sections which extend into the engine bay to form a rigid structure.

5. Heavy body shell-unit body construction of extra heavy gauge steel.

6. Front wheel drive-pulls the car around the corners and provides sure footing on any road conditions.

7. Three-point seat belts, which hold driver and passenger securely in place and keep the upper torso from falling forward on impact.

8. Safety windshield which pops out on impact.

9. Padded sunvisors and dashboard ( in addition to lighter gauge metal beneath the dashboard ) .

10. Safety steering column which collapses in a severe collision

11. Safety door latches which keep doors closed even on heavy impact.

12. Passenger seat lock-a retaining latch on the front passenger seat to prevent the seat back from folding forward in case of sudden stops.

13. A fresh-air ventilation system in all models which allows clean air, pulled in from the front (above the hood), to circulate in the car and be ex- hausted through rear ports. This system keeps rear and side windows clear and helps the driver stay alert and awake.

14. Oversized (15″) wheels which provide good tire traction, support, control-and a longer tire life.

15. Rear-mounted gas tank which is well protected and placed away from the passengers.

16. Four-lamp warning system. Both the taillights and the directional signals flash to alert other drivers when the atomobile is stopped by the side of the road.

The SAAB safety philosophy is utterly simple-design the automobile as you would the aircraft. Even though the SAAB costs $2000 as opposed to $1 million for the SAAB jet airplane, the driver of the automobile is as interested in his life as the pilot is in his. And so are we.

Continue Reading

Saab Automotive Safety

Posted on 01. Jan, 1967 by .

0

new haven press release header 600 Saab Automotive Safety

Saab Automotive Safety

SAAB (short for Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget, or Swedish Aircraft Company) began its highly successful corporate life building fighter planes under license from other manufacturers in 1936. Later, they concentrated on the lirst all-Swedish designed fighter plane, the SAAB 17. (Today, SAAB is supplying the Royal Swedish Air Force with jet aircraft.) When the military aircraft boom leveled oJ in the late Forties, SAAB turned to other products. An automotive subsidiary was formed, and SAAB’s aircraft engineering and manufacturing experience was incorporated into the SAAB 92. This automobile was specifically designed to withstand the vagaries of Sweden’s rugged climate and topography. The aerodynamic little coupe was the first model in a series of hardy if unspectacular front-wheel-drive, two-stroke, economy automobiles. Through the years, subtle improvements have been made to that basic SAAB, but the package remains essentially the same-a durable, almost indestructible machine.

The SAAB safety story is an impressive one: like many other European manufacturers, SAAB started with safety and went on from there. SAAB is doing something right, as proved by their lon.g string of victories on the punishing-and very dangerous-European rally circuit, where rolling a car is just one method of getting it out of a ditch or around a corner. The more conventional aspects of SAAB’s safety story are presented below.-Ed.

Automotive safety is the current concern of the government, the American public, the press, and automobile manufacturers. And it should be! There were 50,000 traffic fatalities last year in the United States and over four million people suffered injuries.

SAAB shares this concern for automotive safety but it is not something new with us. The first SAAB was designed on the drawing boards of Europe’s leading aircraft manufacturing company and the safety sought in airplane design was incorporated in the first SAAB automobile. We have never deviated from this safety concept.

Since we have what we believe to be the safest small car in the world, we have virtually been able to take the role of an observer in the current safety controversy. Upon analysis, it is evident that some of the criticism leveled at certain automobile manufacturers has been valid- but we hasten to add that most of the criticirn is missing the mark.

Our objective has always been to make as safe an automobile as possible, and concentration on this paramount concern has made us increasingly aware of the total driving environment-road, driver and car. The proper development of each segment of the total driving environment provides the essence of automotive safety-just as the absence of concern for improving one segment sets the stage for hazardous driving conditions.

Now that intensive interest in all phases of safety has been aroused, we can be assured of more prgress toward that goal. Our highway program, as an example, is certainly making safety a primary goal. In communities, heavy-traffic streets are becoming one-way thoroughfares for faster and safer traffic flow. Regulation and limitation of size and type of vehicles spreads traffic more evenly over a community’s streets and by-passes heavy- traffic areas. And the addition of traffic lights, stop signs, and other warning devices where needed contribute to safer driving.

On the open road, the development of freeways, parkways,and turnpikes has made cross-country traveling quicker and safer than ever before. Continuing road studies showing how engineering can “build safety” into highways are reflected in new highway construction and are prompting changes in older roads. More and more, the principle of separation of traffic forms the basis of design in building new roads.

The study of driver habits and driving hazards is getting more attention than ever, and the results show that this area promises greatest improvement in the safety picture. According to a survey made by Liberty Mutual, a Boston-based insurance firm, about 95 per cent of automobile accidents are made by so-called driver error; in other words, the driver makes a wror,g decision, mostly because he has not been,trained to make the right one.

Experience is the best drivertraining teacher, but instruction, training, and continual checking and examination are other means of reaching this end. The insurance company study has shown that individual characteristics tend to show what kind of accidents a driver is apt to incur, and developing reac- tions to such possibilities will tend to avoid them. Working on this princi- ple with fleet drivers, the insurance company has reduced accidents by some 50 per cent.

This type of training-and the driver courses given in our schools -will lessen automobile accidents. Harder driving tests for those applying for licenses will help, and retesting drivers at regular intervals will serve to keep their driving skills up to par. Phycical check-ups for older drivers are also important, and are becoming more and more a part of our safety thinking.

So we can look to a more careful program of driver selection, driver training, and constant driver testing to reduce accidents by a substantial percentage.

The SAAB is a sturdy, safety-designed car. Proof of its sturdiness can be obtained from any SAAB owner and some evidence of its safety design features can be found in the following examples.

Thirty SAABs, being transported to this country from Sweden, were stored in the hold of a ship which encountered a major storm in the Atlantic, with winds in excess of gale force whipping waves to fortyand fifty-foot heights. As the waves thundered against the ship, the lashings securing the thirty automobiles were snapped and, to coin a phrase, all SAABs broke loose. To quote the captain of the vessel, “The cars bounced around the hold like ping pong balls in a cage.”

When the cars were finally unloaded from the ship in New Haven, Conn., there was a curious reaction among many of those at the SAAB headquarters in the United States. We were sad at having lost 30 fine automobiles, but the sadness was tinged with pride-because not one of the 30 cars had its passenger compartment crushed. After being tossed around for hours, one car on top of another, not one SAAB had its roof penetrated or its doors buckled.

Another instance of SAAB durability occurred during a competition endurance race in Canada. A SAAB traveling at about 75 miles per hour encountered another car which had slowed suddenly. Seeking to avoid a collision, the SAAB swerved from its course and as a result turned two end-to-end somersaults and ended its forward momentum with five barrel rolls. The driver then unfas- tened his harness and crawled out of the car, which was lying on its side, through the windshield. (The windshield had popped out on the first som’ersault as it had been designed to do.) Although this crash involved speeds and stresses of far greater proportions than would normally be encountered in a “routine” highway accident, the main structure of the car had suffered no basic deformation and after five rolls the roof had not collapsed.

Finally, to prove the mettle of the car, SAAB staged a special ski event in Sweden in which a SAAB sedan was driven down a ski slope in a roll-over test. After a series of rolls the car righted itself and was driven away from the bottom of the slope.

When the car was first designed in 1949, the aircraft engineers’ objective was a five-passenger automobile which would combine high economy and dependable performance with maintenance-free operation and every known facet of safety. We believe one of the major contributions to performance and safety to be front wheel drive. Since the first SAAB, there have been three design changes-the latest in 1965-but the basic principles nave never been abandoned for the sake of styling.

There have, however, been many improvements in the SAAB which were actual “improvements” rather than mere model changes. For example, the SAAB 96, which was introduced in 1960, has had more than 1500 improvements. Some of the major safety improvements since 1960 are:

Three-point shoulder harness

Dual diagonal brake system

Self-adjusting front brakes

Tamper-proof lock

Improved forward vision

Dual rear-view mirrors

Four-way emergency flasher

Upon reviewing this list, it is interesting to note that in 1964 SAAB had a dual diagonal braking system. A dual braking system is specified by the General Services Administration as one of the requirements for any cars this government agency purchases in 1967. Generally, dual braking systems control two front wheels and two back wheels separately. SAAB’s dual diagonal system controls the left front and right rear; right front and left rear, for greatly improved control.

This same braking system was recently singled out by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration ) in its report to Congress. The space agency rated this braking system “vastly superior” on wet pavement to many U. S. cars’.

The braking tests were conducted by Langley Research Center investigators as part of their study of aquaplaning (the problem of “water ski” effects which can cause aircraft -and cars-to lose all braking and directional control on wet or slushcovered surfaces).

A NASA representative testified that in cars where dual master brake cylinders are used, the “almost universal practice” is to connect the front wheels to one master cylinder and the rear wheels to the other. He added: “A failure of one system gives front wheel braking or rear wheel braking, both of which can result in an uncontrolled skid if wheels are locked on wet pavements.”

The Langley investigators noticed that one foreign car (SAAB) had dual master brake cylinders with each serving one front wheel and the diagonal rear wheel. According to the NASA authorities, “the Langley test car with the diagonal hookup was vastly supelior to the other connections for locked wheel conditions on wet pavements.”

The advantages of front wheel drive in the modern automobile are quite apparent, and the design of the future will consider this essential.

although there are many technical and engineering advantages, the one the average driver is going to notice first is the smooth floor that the car presents. Since the driveshaft does not have to go from the engine to the rear wheels, there is no “hump” or other obstruction on the floor of the passenger compartment.

Another advantage is the “understeer” quality which front wheel drive furnishes. Sports cars are always seeking this quality, because it contributes to easy handling and directional stability. Traction is often more critical at low speed than at high speed, and front wheel drive gives that additional traction. If the front wheels start to slide, control is regained by a slight easing of the throttle, not by a frantic rotation of the steering wheel.

Braking response of front wheel drive is another important advantage. The margin of safety as opposed to rear wheel drive is greater, and even during excessive braking, the car will travel a straight line permitting the driver to brake as hard and as often as he wishes under any circumstances.

The SAAB body is an enclosure on wheels in which every panel, every member combines to create a structure of immense strength. Every inch of the design has been tested with the strain gauges SAAB has developed for testing jet fighters.

The SAAB body is built up from a relatively small number of pressed parts of sheet metal linked by overlapping joints which are spot welded. The body, which serves simultaneously as the framework, is virtually a closed shell which combines the tasks of supporting the passengers, and protecting them, and at the same time providing the necessary stiffening and load supporting connection between the four wheels.

SAAB’s dual-diagonal braking system.

The shell is considered as a continuous unit from the back up to the rear edge of the doors. This part of the body resembles an egg shell from which a large part of one end has been removed. This shell shape is prevented from deforming by the insertion of a bulkhead a short distance inside the shell, to produce a considerable stiffening effect. This bulkhead consists of the sloping wall, which serves simultaneously as the back support of the rear seats.

The roof is rigidly fixed at the top, the floor at the bottom, and the outer panelling of the body at the sides. The sides of the floor are strengthened with straight closed steel sections. Thus the roof and flooring extend towards the front forming two strong beams which are fixed at the back of the shell. The firewall is located between the front end of these beams, where the frame for the windshield is mounted.

Each of the windshield side posts contains a special tubular steel section which extends forward and downward and is fixed in the firewall to absorb the vertical and transverse forces set up. In effect, this is roll bar construction.

The firewall has extra strong lateral side members to allow it to take vertical loads-the firewall itself forming a channel girder across the entire car over two feet in height. The wheel h ousings which are located near this strong channel girder form the side walls of the engine compartment and constitute a supporting member for the front of the car. The flooring itself connects the wheel housings.

Dimensions and layout have been chosen so that all pars cooperate in taking the maximum permissible stress at maximum loads. Loading tests carried out with strain gauges under realistic conditions have verified this.

In a compact car capable of such high speeds as the SAAB, suspension is of paramount importance, contributing as it does to general stability and roadholding qualities.

Front wheel suspension is accomplished by the stub axle carried in a single angular contact ball bearing. The rubber bearings are of the type in which angular movements take place without any sliding motion whatever. All the relative movement is absorbed elastically in the rubber, with the roll center somewhat above ground level. The coil spring is on top of the upper suspension arm. A stabilizer (anti-roll bar) connects the two lower suspen- sion arms, with the outer ends of these arms connected to the steering knuckle housing by means of ball and socket joints.

The U-section rigid axle of the rear suspension system is joined to the body by a resilient bearing in the car’s plane of symmetry and by two longitudinal links at the sides. The central bearing is designed to take up lateral forces and, together with the springx, the braking torque. The side links keep the rear axle at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the car and carry over the braking forces transmitted from the rear wheels.

Shock absorber movement is approximately half that of the wheels when the spring system functions without roll. When roll does occur, however, movement of the shock absorbers-which are attached to the rear axle-is considerably greater, approximately 80% of wheel movement.

The rear axle design eliminates rear-end lift under braking because brake torque produces a spring compression which compensates for this. It also eliminates sway in S-bends, as the shock absorbers react sufflciently to damp roll and thus stabilize the car.

With two people in the car the weight distribution is approximately 58% on the front wheels and 42% on the rear wheels. This weight distribution ensures good drivingwheel adhesion, keeping the load on the front wheels greater than that on the rear wheels, as long as the up gradient does not exceed 25O.

Development work on the SAAB in 1949 included extensive preliminary tests to eliminate any weak points in the construction and to study stress characteristics, phenomena and elasticity. The accumulated experience of these tests was utilized to determine loads and working conditions very accurately. Tests on parts included torsional fatigue tests on the stabilizer and on coil springs, and dynamic load tests on the front spring arms. As soon as a number of test cars were ready, some of them were put through alternating road and special track tests .

Continuing SAAB tests included thousands of circuits at full speed in both directions round a small circular track with an uneven surface, consisting of radially arranged planks. Runs were also made over a special track about 100 yards long, where 4-in. high blocks arranged in zig-zag subjected the wheel suspension, spring system, shock absorbers, steering gear and body to loads which would normally occur only if the car ran off the road, or drove over deep potholes. No part was approved unless it could stand up to 1000 runs over the “steps” and 200 jumps from the “jumping board.”

In summary, the SAAB does not make safety an option or even a “delete option.” Every safety item in a SAAB is in every SAAB and there is no extra or hidden charge.

Among these “standard” safety features are:

1. Dual diagonal brake system- two independent hydraulic systems, mounted diagonally. Should one brake line fail there will still be adequate braking power for two wheels, one front and one rear, on opposite sides of the car.

2. Extra strong windshield pillars, which function as a “roll bar” for maximum roof support.

3. Cross box member body construction for extra strength.

4. Reserve reinforcements under the hood-corrugated metal sections which extend into the engine bay to form a rigid structure.

5. Heavy body shell-unit body construction of extra heavy gauge steel.

6. Front wheel drive-pulls the car around the corners and provides sure footing on any road conditions.

7. Three-point seat belts, which hold driver and passenger securely in place and keep the upper torso from falling forward on impact.

8. Safety windshield which pops out on impact.

9. Padded sunvisors and dashboard ( in addition to lighter gauge metal beneath the dashboard ) .

10. Safety steering column which collapses in a severe collision

11. Safety door latches which keep doors closed even on heavy impact.

12. Passenger seat lock-a retaining latch on the front passenger seat to prevent the seat back from folding forward in case of sudden stops.

13. A fresh-air ventilation system in all models which allows clean air, pulled in from the front (above the hood), to circulate in the car and be ex- hausted through rear ports. This system keeps rear and side windows clear and helps the driver stay alert and awake.

14. Oversized (15″) wheels which provide good tire traction, support, control-and a longer tire life.

15. Rear-mounted gas tank which is well protected and placed away from the passengers.

16. Four-lamp warning system. Both the taillights and the directional signals flash to alert other drivers when the atomobile is stopped by the side of the road.

The SAAB safety philosophy is utterly simple-design the automobile as you would the aircraft. Even though the SAAB costs $2000 as opposed to $1 million for the SAAB jet airplane, the driver of the automobile is as interested in his life as the pilot is in his. And so are we.

Continue Reading

1967 SAAB Facts & Figures

Posted on 01. Jan, 1967 by .

0

new haven press release header 600 1967 SAAB Facts & Figures

1967 SAAB Facts & Figures

SAAB Aktiebolag, or the SAAB Aircraft Company – as this company is better known internationally – has played a leading role in the Swedish aeronautical industry ever since before World War II Today its responsibility has grown even bigger as the company in 1962 was appointed prime contractor for the biggest defence project – Svstem 37 – ever undertaken in Sweden. As prime contractor for this new weapons system. SAAB has taken over a major part of the technical coordination and procurement work previously carried out by the Air Force itself. This new manned weapons system alone is expected to keep approx. 10000 people in the aviation industry busy for a considerable number of years
SAAB is today also an important automobile manufacturer with substantial exports, and the company is also very active in the field of computers, both general purpose equipment and special computers for advanced military application.

Aircraft

Today, the company’s production lines are filled by the SAAB 35 Draken super-sonic jet fighter whih is being produced in very large numbers for the Swedish Air Force. Since 1960, the company has delivered the Draken in no fewer than six different versions, including the J35A, J35B, J35D and J35F all weather interceptor/attack versions, the SK35 two-seat trainer version and the S35E photo-reconnaissance version. Of these the J35F is the latest and most important since it represents what is described by the Swedish Air Force as the most modern fighter interception system in Europe.

The Swedish Air Force has a total of 550 Draken aircraft on order with production scheduled to continue until 1970.

As mentioned initially, SAAB is main contractor for the new combat aircraft included in the Weapons System 37. This will be a multi-mission aircraft. known as the SAAB 37 Viggen. It has been designed as a standard flying platform for three different combat roles. The Viggen will have STOL peformance by employing a very advanced aerodynamic confiauration usina a nose wing with flap blowing in combination with a delta wing A special feature of the aircraft will be its central digital computer.

The first version of the Viggen to go into service will be the AJ37 all-weather attack version which is intended to start replacing the present r32A Lansen all-weather attack system ln 1471. The efficient power plant – a Swedish supersonic development of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D by-pass engine with a bio Swedish afterburner and thrust reverser will feature both high thrust and good operatino economy at low altitude.

In addition to the Draken production, the company is in large-scale production of its new twin–jet trainer, light attack and liaison aircraft, the SAAB 105 Developed as a private venture, the SAAB 105 is now the object of a Swedish Air Force order for 150 aircraft.

SAAB has had considerable trainer experience before entering the jet trainer field. During a long period of years, the company has produced several series of the SAAB 91 Safir piston-engined trainers. Now, standard trainer with air forces of 6 nations and several airline pilot training schools in three countries, the Safir has become a very popular aircraft of unique training value in relation to cost.

Guided missiles

SAAB is not only responsible for the Swedish manned weapons systems The company is also prime contractor for several tyPes of ouided missiles, including two versions of the Huges Falcon, RB 27 with radar homing and RB 28 with IR homing. Both types of Falcon are needed in order to provide effective air defense under all weather conditions. In addition to the Falcon programme, the company is responsible for development of a new air to surface uided missile the SAr 305, for the new System 37 and the SAA13 105 attach version. A third missile programme is the RbO8 ship-to–ship and coast defence missile system for which SAAB is now responsible for final development and quantity production on behalf of the Swedish Navy. The Rb 08 is a development of the French Nord cr 20 target missile.

Electronics

Another SAAB field is military and civil electronics. he ain products are computers for airborne military purposes as well as computers for scientific and industrial/commercial data processing. Included in the rane of military products are the S7 fire control system for later Draken versions, the miniatyrized central digital computer in the Viggen, the BT9 bombing computer used in the Lansen attack version and several foreign types of attack aircraft. rhe civil electronic programme includes the D21 eneral purpose computer now being successfully marketed. In addition, SAAB produces in quantity machine tool control systems.

Motor cars

A very major role played by SAAB is that of a passenger car manufacturer. SAABs automobile production has in little more than a decade grown to substantial scale and importance not only for the company but for the country as a whole, as SAAB also exports its cars to nearly 50 countries.

SAAB currently produces nearly 50,000 cars per year and further production increases are being planned.

Empoyment

Today the employments in the SAAB group of companies amount to approximately 15,000 persons distributed as follows:

Linkoping (head office military products development and production)                                                                   7,000

Jonkoping + Stensholm (airborne and special equipment)                                                                  900

Trollhattan (motor cars, jet engine parts)                                                                  3,000

Gothenburg (car engines and special military electronics development laboratory)                                                                  1,000

Nykoping (the SAAB car sales organization for Sweden and Chrysler and Massey-Ferguson products sale)                                                                  2,500

Sodertalje (precision tools)                                                                   138

Stockholm (technical, liaison and sales office)                                                                  53

London (car sales and purchasing)                                                                  36

New York (+ New Haven, Conn, USA) (car sales and purchasing)                                                                  130

Facilities

SAAB today possesses covered factory and office area exceedin 500,000 suare meters.

Continue Reading

1967 SAAB Facts & Figures

Posted on 01. Jan, 1967 by .

0

new haven press release header 600 1967 SAAB Facts & Figures

1967 SAAB Facts & Figures

SAAB Aktiebolag, or the SAAB Aircraft Company – as this company is better known internationally – has played a leading role in the Swedish aeronautical industry ever since before World War II Today its responsibility has grown even bigger as the company in 1962 was appointed prime contractor for the biggest defence project – Svstem 37 – ever undertaken in Sweden. As prime contractor for this new weapons system. SAAB has taken over a major part of the technical coordination and procurement work previously carried out by the Air Force itself. This new manned weapons system alone is expected to keep approx. 10000 people in the aviation industry busy for a considerable number of years
SAAB is today also an important automobile manufacturer with substantial exports, and the company is also very active in the field of computers, both general purpose equipment and special computers for advanced military application.

Aircraft

Today, the company’s production lines are filled by the SAAB 35 Draken super-sonic jet fighter whih is being produced in very large numbers for the Swedish Air Force. Since 1960, the company has delivered the Draken in no fewer than six different versions, including the J35A, J35B, J35D and J35F all weather interceptor/attack versions, the SK35 two-seat trainer version and the S35E photo-reconnaissance version. Of these the J35F is the latest and most important since it represents what is described by the Swedish Air Force as the most modern fighter interception system in Europe.

The Swedish Air Force has a total of 550 Draken aircraft on order with production scheduled to continue until 1970.

As mentioned initially, SAAB is main contractor for the new combat aircraft included in the Weapons System 37. This will be a multi-mission aircraft. known as the SAAB 37 Viggen. It has been designed as a standard flying platform for three different combat roles. The Viggen will have STOL peformance by employing a very advanced aerodynamic confiauration usina a nose wing with flap blowing in combination with a delta wing A special feature of the aircraft will be its central digital computer.

The first version of the Viggen to go into service will be the AJ37 all-weather attack version which is intended to start replacing the present r32A Lansen all-weather attack system ln 1471. The efficient power plant – a Swedish supersonic development of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D by-pass engine with a bio Swedish afterburner and thrust reverser will feature both high thrust and good operatino economy at low altitude.

In addition to the Draken production, the company is in large-scale production of its new twin–jet trainer, light attack and liaison aircraft, the SAAB 105 Developed as a private venture, the SAAB 105 is now the object of a Swedish Air Force order for 150 aircraft.

SAAB has had considerable trainer experience before entering the jet trainer field. During a long period of years, the company has produced several series of the SAAB 91 Safir piston-engined trainers. Now, standard trainer with air forces of 6 nations and several airline pilot training schools in three countries, the Safir has become a very popular aircraft of unique training value in relation to cost.

Guided missiles

SAAB is not only responsible for the Swedish manned weapons systems The company is also prime contractor for several tyPes of ouided missiles, including two versions of the Huges Falcon, RB 27 with radar homing and RB 28 with IR homing. Both types of Falcon are needed in order to provide effective air defense under all weather conditions. In addition to the Falcon programme, the company is responsible for development of a new air to surface uided missile the SAr 305, for the new System 37 and the SAA13 105 attach version. A third missile programme is the RbO8 ship-to–ship and coast defence missile system for which SAAB is now responsible for final development and quantity production on behalf of the Swedish Navy. The Rb 08 is a development of the French Nord cr 20 target missile.

Electronics

Another SAAB field is military and civil electronics. he ain products are computers for airborne military purposes as well as computers for scientific and industrial/commercial data processing. Included in the rane of military products are the S7 fire control system for later Draken versions, the miniatyrized central digital computer in the Viggen, the BT9 bombing computer used in the Lansen attack version and several foreign types of attack aircraft. rhe civil electronic programme includes the D21 eneral purpose computer now being successfully marketed. In addition, SAAB produces in quantity machine tool control systems.

Motor cars

A very major role played by SAAB is that of a passenger car manufacturer. SAABs automobile production has in little more than a decade grown to substantial scale and importance not only for the company but for the country as a whole, as SAAB also exports its cars to nearly 50 countries.

SAAB currently produces nearly 50,000 cars per year and further production increases are being planned.

Empoyment

Today the employments in the SAAB group of companies amount to approximately 15,000 persons distributed as follows:

Linkoping (head office military products development and production)                                                                   7,000

Jonkoping + Stensholm (airborne and special equipment)                                                                  900

Trollhattan (motor cars, jet engine parts)                                                                  3,000

Gothenburg (car engines and special military electronics development laboratory)                                                                  1,000

Nykoping (the SAAB car sales organization for Sweden and Chrysler and Massey-Ferguson products sale)                                                                  2,500

Sodertalje (precision tools)                                                                   138

Stockholm (technical, liaison and sales office)                                                                  53

London (car sales and purchasing)                                                                  36

New York (+ New Haven, Conn, USA) (car sales and purchasing)                                                                  130

Facilities

SAAB today possesses covered factory and office area exceedin 500,000 suare meters.

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1967 SAAB PROGRESS IN AMERICA

Posted on 01. Jan, 1967 by .

0

new haven press release header 600 1967 SAAB PROGRESS IN AMERICA

1967 SAAB PROGRESS IN AMERICA

In 1955 the President of SAAB, visited the United States in connection with the aircraft production, and at luncheon in New York one day, he made the comment that if Volkswagen could sell the “beetle” in the United States, why can’t we sell the SAAB 93 — and with that the wheels started to move to sell in this country.

The first SAABs that arrived here came on a Swedish ship early in 1956. There were two of them — both green — and they were destined for the first New York Automobile Show which opened at Easter time that year. Shortly thereafter, we received an experimental sports car which was called the SONNET, which was also at New York Show that year. It was an interesting experience for all concerned because with our debut in New York came all of the problems of spare parts and distribution, which unfortunately, we really hadn’t planned for. At the New York Show, we were deluged with the availability of the car, price, and our dealer organization; and we really didn’t know the price of the car, nor did we know of any dealers from whom it could be sold. In fact, we didn’t have a company formed, as SAAB’s business in the United States at that time was being held by a privately owned concern which was primarily concerned with purchasing material for their aircraft production.

In June of 1956, SAAB Motors was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of the factory, and the first maor decision was made: the sale of the car should be confined to the New England area and distributed through a factory- owned organization. The biggest problem at that time, however, was to get automobiles, and although we received about 15 more cars in addition to those two that came for the first show, we didn’t receive any quantity of automobiles until late in December of that year when 100 cars arrived in Boston and were deposited in Hingham, Massachusetts at the old Navy shipyard where we had rented a small building as headquarters for our distribution. At that time, another decision was made which has been important to us, and that is that we would very carefully inspect and prepare all cars for delivery prior to their being shipped to the dealers. It was at this time that the first people were hired to go to work, as prior to that time there was only one secretary and one man working for the company.

In the year 1957, we imported a total of 1400 cars, and although we had appointed a few dealers late in 1956, we concentrated on the appointment of SAAB Dealers in the New England area and in New York during this period.

In 1958, we expanded our marketing territory into the New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio areas and had a total sale of approximately 3700 cars for

The year 1959 resulted in an additional expansion of the market, and the establishment of two additional distribution points — in Carteret, New Jersey (near Port Newark) and in Jacksonville, Florida. Our dealer organization had been expanded to about 150 dealers, and that year we reached a sale of 5100 cars.

In 1960, we introduced the SAAB 96 model which was sold thru the 1964 model year, and although there was no maor expansion of the marketing territory except with a limited penetration in the Midwest — Chicago, St. Louis, and Milwaukee, we achieved our best sales of 5179 cars, and then came the rough years for the imported cars. In 1961, on more or less of a trial basis, we appointed SAAB Motor Car Company in Denver, Colorado as a dealer. This was quite a step because Denver was way beyond our marketing territory, and we weren’t sure of the acceptance of the car in the Rocky Mountain area. But with such enthusiasm for the product, it was difficult to say “no”. Un£ortunately, the Florida market in 1961 became very weak, as it was with all imports, and our sales dropped to 4200 cars for the year.

In 1961 we decided to consolidate the activities in New York, Port Newark and Hingham, and establish our base in New Haven, Connecticut. The reason for this move was that we were anxious to have one distribution point for the northeastern part of the country, rather than two, and to place all of our activities under one roof.

In New Haven, SAAB was lucky to take over an old factory/warehouse building right on the waterfront, a building that had ample facilities for all SAAB Motors functions: 105,000 square feet floor area, parking for 600 cars; offices, in the completely remodeled fourth floor; spare parts on the second and third floors; shipping and receiving and service on the first floor, and on the ground floor, space for both preparation and storage of cars. Everything was consolidated under one roof — and SAAB had found a firm base in the U. S. — a base that cost us $300,000 to make ready but that has been well worth the money.

SAAB has progressed remarkably ever since. Although the years 1962 and 1963 saw a sales drop for all imports, including ours, SAAB came back in 1963 with a sale of 4,500 cars, and has since been gaining a steadily increasing ac- ceptance and recognition.

SAAB is finishing this model year with a sale of approximately 8,000 cars; a 40 per cent increase over last year. Our plans for the 1967 model year, with the introduction of the Lifetime Warranty on the Shrike 2-cycle 3-cylinder engine, and the addition of the V-4 to our line of cars, call for a sale of 12,000 cars, and we have every reason to feel that this goal will be reached.

Our dealerships have increased and expanded. This past year saw the establishment of dealers on the West Coast, including Alaska, and the reception our car has had in this new area is the most successful in our history.

SAAB has had many years of progress in this country. And every indication is that we will have many more.

Continue Reading

1967 SAAB PROGRESS IN AMERICA

Posted on 01. Jan, 1967 by .

0

new haven press release header 600 1967 SAAB PROGRESS IN AMERICA

1967 SAAB PROGRESS IN AMERICA

In 1955 the President of SAAB, visited the United States in connection with the aircraft production, and at luncheon in New York one day, he made the comment that if Volkswagen could sell the “beetle” in the United States, why can’t we sell the SAAB 93 — and with that the wheels started to move to sell in this country.

The first SAABs that arrived here came on a Swedish ship early in 1956. There were two of them — both green — and they were destined for the first New York Automobile Show which opened at Easter time that year. Shortly thereafter, we received an experimental sports car which was called the SONNET, which was also at New York Show that year. It was an interesting experience for all concerned because with our debut in New York came all of the problems of spare parts and distribution, which unfortunately, we really hadn’t planned for. At the New York Show, we were deluged with the availability of the car, price, and our dealer organization; and we really didn’t know the price of the car, nor did we know of any dealers from whom it could be sold. In fact, we didn’t have a company formed, as SAAB’s business in the United States at that time was being held by a privately owned concern which was primarily concerned with purchasing material for their aircraft production.

In June of 1956, SAAB Motors was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of the factory, and the first maor decision was made: the sale of the car should be confined to the New England area and distributed through a factory- owned organization. The biggest problem at that time, however, was to get automobiles, and although we received about 15 more cars in addition to those two that came for the first show, we didn’t receive any quantity of automobiles until late in December of that year when 100 cars arrived in Boston and were deposited in Hingham, Massachusetts at the old Navy shipyard where we had rented a small building as headquarters for our distribution. At that time, another decision was made which has been important to us, and that is that we would very carefully inspect and prepare all cars for delivery prior to their being shipped to the dealers. It was at this time that the first people were hired to go to work, as prior to that time there was only one secretary and one man working for the company.

In the year 1957, we imported a total of 1400 cars, and although we had appointed a few dealers late in 1956, we concentrated on the appointment of SAAB Dealers in the New England area and in New York during this period.

In 1958, we expanded our marketing territory into the New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio areas and had a total sale of approximately 3700 cars for

The year 1959 resulted in an additional expansion of the market, and the establishment of two additional distribution points — in Carteret, New Jersey (near Port Newark) and in Jacksonville, Florida. Our dealer organization had been expanded to about 150 dealers, and that year we reached a sale of 5100 cars.

In 1960, we introduced the SAAB 96 model which was sold thru the 1964 model year, and although there was no maor expansion of the marketing territory except with a limited penetration in the Midwest — Chicago, St. Louis, and Milwaukee, we achieved our best sales of 5179 cars, and then came the rough years for the imported cars. In 1961, on more or less of a trial basis, we appointed SAAB Motor Car Company in Denver, Colorado as a dealer. This was quite a step because Denver was way beyond our marketing territory, and we weren’t sure of the acceptance of the car in the Rocky Mountain area. But with such enthusiasm for the product, it was difficult to say “no”. Un£ortunately, the Florida market in 1961 became very weak, as it was with all imports, and our sales dropped to 4200 cars for the year.

In 1961 we decided to consolidate the activities in New York, Port Newark and Hingham, and establish our base in New Haven, Connecticut. The reason for this move was that we were anxious to have one distribution point for the northeastern part of the country, rather than two, and to place all of our activities under one roof.

In New Haven, SAAB was lucky to take over an old factory/warehouse building right on the waterfront, a building that had ample facilities for all SAAB Motors functions: 105,000 square feet floor area, parking for 600 cars; offices, in the completely remodeled fourth floor; spare parts on the second and third floors; shipping and receiving and service on the first floor, and on the ground floor, space for both preparation and storage of cars. Everything was consolidated under one roof — and SAAB had found a firm base in the U. S. — a base that cost us $300,000 to make ready but that has been well worth the money.

SAAB has progressed remarkably ever since. Although the years 1962 and 1963 saw a sales drop for all imports, including ours, SAAB came back in 1963 with a sale of 4,500 cars, and has since been gaining a steadily increasing ac- ceptance and recognition.

SAAB is finishing this model year with a sale of approximately 8,000 cars; a 40 per cent increase over last year. Our plans for the 1967 model year, with the introduction of the Lifetime Warranty on the Shrike 2-cycle 3-cylinder engine, and the addition of the V-4 to our line of cars, call for a sale of 12,000 cars, and we have every reason to feel that this goal will be reached.

Our dealerships have increased and expanded. This past year saw the establishment of dealers on the West Coast, including Alaska, and the reception our car has had in this new area is the most successful in our history.

SAAB has had many years of progress in this country. And every indication is that we will have many more.

Continue Reading




Production Concept